Fatwa ID: 02305
Answered by Molana Jamal Ahmed
have a question on Wasiyyat.
My father is in the process of drafting his Wasiyyat and I have been
given a responsibility to execute his Wasiyyat after his demise. The background to my question is as follows
1. My father resides in Saudi Arabia but has a property in Pakistan which generates rental income
2. All of his children lives abroad except one son who lives with him
3. My father is intending to go back to Pakistan permanently in few months along with my brother who lives with him
4. He wants to make a wasiyyat that after his demise the rent should go to his those son(s) who will be living in Pakistan at that time
My question in this regard on which I am seeking guidance is as follows
1. I have read that validity of Wasiyyat for a Waris in dependent on the permission of all other Wurasa after the death of the person doing Wasiyyat. I would like to ask whether this rule only relates to assets such as property, bank balance etc. or this relates to income generated from these assets as well
2. If the rule also applies to income generated by the assets than is it possible for my dad
a. to hibaa the rental income in his lifetime on the condition that the rental income will only belong to his son(s) living in Pakistan after his death i.e. they won’t get the income as long as he is alive. In other words, can the gift today be conditional on a future event? b. to gift the rental income (either in his lifetime or after his demise) without gifting the actual property which generates the rentMy dad wants to give only rent to his son(s) living in Pakistan and not the property. If the property is sold in future than he wants everybody to get their share based on Islamic inheritance rules.I shall be most grateful if you could kindly provide guidance in the matter.
Wasiyyah is only valid in one third of the wealth except when the heirs allow it to extend to more than on third. Similarly, wasiyyah can only be executed after the funeral expences and debt of the deceased are paid off.
You are not allowed to make wasiyyah for anyone of the heirs except if the other members allow it.
You mentioned in your question that if it is allowed to make hiba (offer as a gift) the rental income. You should be aware that hiba and wasiyyah are different because, Hiba means immediate transfer of ownership whilst, wasiyyah is to defer the ownership till after death.
A person cannot make wasiyyah of something he does not own thus, he cannot make wasiyyah of the rental income because it is something which will be acquired after his demise. Also, the rental contract ends with the death of one of the contractors.
But if the heirs agree after the death of the father, for one of the members to receive the rent, then this will be allowed as long as the heirs are all mature, otherwise the rent of the minor has to be deducted.
(ولا تجوز الوصية لوارث) لقوله صلى الله عليه وسلم: "إن الله قد أعطى كل ذي حق حقه؛ فلا وصية لوارث"……… إلى أن قال،
(إلا أن يجيزها الورثة) بعد موته وهم كبار؛ لأن الامتناع كان لحقهم، فتجوز بإجازتهم، وإن أجاز بعضهم دون بعض جاز على المجيز بقدر حصته (ولا تجوز) الوصية (بما زاد على الثلث) إلا أن يجيزها الورثة كما مر.
allubab fi sharhilkitab, vol.4, pg. 168, al maktabatulilmiyah Beirut lubnan.
(وقبول الوصية) إنما يعتبر (بعد الموت) ، لأنه أوان ثبوتها، لإضافتها إلى ما بعده، فلا تعتبر قبله (فإن قبلها الموصى له في حال الحياة أو ردها فذلك باطل) لا عبرة به.
allubab fi sharhilkitab, vol.4, pg. 169, al maktabatulilmiyah Beirut lubnan.
والتحقيق أن قيد التبرع لإخراج التملك بعوض كالبيع والإجارة وأنه احترز بقوله مضاف إلى ما بعد الموت عن نحو الهبة فإنها تمليك تبرع للحال .
Raddulmuhtar, vol.6, pg. 648, darlfikr
(وإذا مات أحد المتعاقدين) عقد الإجارة (وقد) كان (عقد الإجارة لنفسه انفسخت الإجارة) ؛ لأنها لو بقيت تصير المنفعة المملوكة أو الأجرة المملوكة لغير العاقد مستحقة بالعقد لانتقالها إلى الوارث، وهو لا يجوز.
Lubab fi sharhilkitab, vol.2 pg.105, al maktabatulilmiyah, Beirut.
Badaiassanai, vol.7 pg. 333, darulmarifahbeirut
كُلُّ مَنْ وَقَعَ لَهُ عَقْدُ الْإِجَارَةِ إذَا مَاتَ تَنْفَسِخُ الْإِجَارَةُ بِمَوْتِهِ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَقَعْ لَهُ الْعَقْدُ لَا يَنْفَسِخُ الْعَقْدُ بِمَوْتِهِ.
Fatawahindiyah, vol.4, pg.463 darulfikr
Only Allah knows best.
Written by Molana Jamal Ahmed
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham