Doubts on Taqdeer

Fatwa ID: 01783

Answered by Molana Ishaaq Hussain

Question:

Assalamualikum. I'm in doubt for a long time. If a Muslim dies in accident like car accident or aircraft crash or while in train, He will be considered as shaheed (one who died in the path of ALLAH (swt). If yes what will be the punishment if he listens music while travelling in car or airbus at that time crash happens.

Also if a person commits suicide, it is written in his taqdeer. If everything is written in our taqdeer. Why then ALLAH (swt) question us in qiyamah.

Can u please explain me what our taqdeer covers and for what we will be questioned Just like If i go to Mcdonalds, I have a thought it is written in our taqdeer that we will eat this chicken. Then why I am questioned for this. If I go to a movie theatre I have a thought it has been written in my taqdeer, by this time I have to be here.

Also sorry what is Qadha for missed or broken fast. 

 Answer:

Bismillah

Abu Hurrairah said that Allah’s Messenger ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) asked:“Who do you consider to be a martyr?” They said: “O Allah’s Prophet, he who is killed fighting for the cause of Allah.” The Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam said: “If this is the definition of a martyr then very few in my Ummah will be martyrs!” They asked: “Who else are they, O Allah’s Messenger?” He said: “He who is killed fighting for Allah’s cause is a martyr, he who dies in the cause of Allah is a martyr, he who dies in an epidemic is a martyr, he who dies from a stomach disease is a martyr, and the one who dies of drowning is (also) a martyr.”  (Muslim, no: 891)

‘Shaheed” is a specific term, used in the Holy Quran and Sunnah. It has a specific meaning and one should be careful before applying this term to a person. You should ascertain as to whether he is really qualified to be called a shaheed.

According to Islamic jurisprudence ‘shaheed’ is of two kinds:

  1. Shaheed in the real sense.
  2. Shaheed in the constructive sense.

Shaheed in the real sense is a Muslim who has been killed in the battlefield or has been killed by any person unjustly. Such a person has two characteristics different from common people who die on their bed. Firstly he should be buried without giving him a ritual bath. However, the Janazah prayer will be offered and he will also be given a Kafan. Secondly he will deserve a great reward in the hereafter and it is hoped that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) will forgive his sins and enter him into Jannah.

A shaheed in a constructive sense is a person who has been promised by the holy Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam to get a reward of shaheed in the hereafter but is not taken as shaheed with regards to the rules of buried

The Prophet ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) has included in this kind of shaheed a large number of persons such as a person who has died in a plague or who has died in an unexpected accident, like fire or traffic accident or has been drowned in water or a woman who dies in the delivery of her child etc. (Contemporary Fatawa p 276-277)

Answer 2

Accepting Imaan and faith on Taqdeer is an integral part of being a believer

Saaiduna Jabir raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said “You can never be a Muslim (believer) as long as you do not believe in Taqdeer, in its good and its bad to such an extent that whatever is to happen will be warded off and whatever is not to happen will not occur”.  (Sunan Tirmizi p.36 v.2)

Whatever good and evil takes place in the world Allah Ta’ala knows of it from eternity, and according to his Knowledge he brings it into existence. This is what is meant by Taqdeer.

Allah Ta’ala has given man understanding and the power of choice with which he chooses between good and evil. However, man does not have the power to bring anything into existence of his own accord. (Behishti Zewar p23)

It should be known that to constantly talk about Taqdeer was not the practice of our pious predecessors (salaf)

Saaiduna Abu Hurrairah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) came to us when we were arguing about Taqdeer.  He was angry and his face became so red that it looked as if pomegranate seeds had been burst upon his cheeks.  He then said “Is this what you were commanded to do? Or was it for this purpose that I was sent to you?  Your predecessors perished only when they argued about this matter.  I adjure you; I adjure you, not to argue about it.” (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

Saaidah Aisha Radiyallahu Anha narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam said “He who discusses any aspect of Taqdeer will be questioned about it on the Day of Judgement but he who does not discuss it will not be questioned about it.”   (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

Answer 3

Saaiduna Abu Huraira raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that while we were sitting with the Prophet a man came and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I have been ruined." Allah's Apostle asked what was the matter with him. He replied "I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting." Allah's Apostle asked him, "Can you afford to free a slave?" He replied in the negative. Allah's Apostle asked him, "Can you fast for two successive months?" He replied in the negative. The Prophet asked him, "Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?" He replied in the negative. The Prophet kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet. He asked, "Where is the questioner?" He replied, "I (am here)." The Prophet said (to him), "Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity." The man said, "Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina's) two mountains who are poorer than I." The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, 'Feed your family with it." (Sahih Bukhari p.259 v.1)

From the aforementioned hadith we can derive that if a person intentionally ate, drank or engaged in sexual intercourse during a fast in the month of Ramadhan, kaffarah will be obligatory. (Kitabul Fiqh p.906 v.1)

Kaffarah is only obligatory if a person whilst fasting broke his fast intentionally by eating, drinking or engaging in sexual intercourse.

Finally remember, it is not necessary to keep the qadha fasts in order. One can keep it whenever he wishes. It is obligatory to keep a qadha fast for every single broken fast. (Ilmul Fiqh p.29 v.3)

Only Allah Knows Best

Written by Molana Ishaaq Hussain

Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham.

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