Fatwa ID: 04813
Answered by: Maulana Syed Johir Miah
Glucosamine hydrochloride: Is often prescribed to patients with joint pains. The ingredients include crab and shrimp exoskeleton. I read on a Shia website that the process of تبديل الماهية takes place and hence halal. Can someone confirm this, please?
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Glucosamine is a natural compound found in cartilage, the tough tissue that cushions joints. In supplement form, glucosamine is harvested from shells of shellfish or made in a lab. There are several forms of glucosamine, including glucosamine sulphate, glucosamine hydrochloride and N-acetyl glucosamine.1
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids. Glucosamine is part of the structure of two polysaccharides, chitosan and chitin. Glucosamine is one of the most abundant monosaccharides. Produced commercially by the hydrolysis of shellfish exoskeletons or, less commonly, by fermentation of a grain such as corn or wheat, glucosamine has many names depending on the country. Although a common dietary supplement, there is little evidence that it is effective for relief of arthritis or pain, and is not an approved prescription drug. 2
In addition to relieving pain, glucosamine sulphate might also slow the breakdown of joints and prevent the condition from getting worse if it is taken for several years. Some research shows that people who take glucosamine sulphate might be less likely to need total knee replacement surgery. 3
Tabdeelul Mahiyah i.e. change in the Original Properties of a Substance.
Tabdeelul Mahiyah is the total transformation of something whereby the original substance holds no properties of its former condition and state and differ completely from it in the application.
A person must understand that to include everything and anything under this analogy or cite modern food production techniques does not necessarily satisfy the condition of Tabdeelul Mahiyah.
However, some remnant of the original product still remains in the last packaged product making it contaminated and inappropriate for use despite the great chemical changes it underwent, such as gelatin.
Hence, this will not be considered Tabdeelul Mahiyah and therefore will be haram.
Examples of Tabdeelul Mahiyah ;
قالَ فِي الفَتْحِ: ولَوْ صُبَّ ماءٌ فِي خَمْرٍ أوْ بِالعَكْسِ ثُمَّ صارَ خَلًّا طَهُرَ فِي الصَّحِيحِ، بِخِلافِ ما لَوْ وقَعَتْ فِيها فَأْرَةٌ ثُمَّ أُخْرِجَتْ بَعْدَما تَخَلَّلَتْ فِي الصَّحِيحِ؛ لِأنَّها تَنَجَّسَتْ بَعْدَ التَّخَلُّلِ، بِخِلافِ ما لَوْ أُخْرِجَتْ قَبْلَهُ. اهـ. وكَذا لَوْ وقَعَتْ فِي العَصِيرِ أوْ ولَغَ فِيهِ كَلْبٌ ثُمَّ تَخَمَّرَ ثُمَّ تَخَلَّلَ لا يَطْهُرُ هُوَ المُخْتارُ بَحْرٌ عَنْ الخُلاصَةِ.
وفِي الخانِيَّةِ: خَمْرٌ صُبَّ فِي قِدْرِ الطَّعامِ ثُمَّ صُبَّ فِيهِ الخَلُّ وصارَ حامِضًا بِحَيْثُ لا يُمْكِنُ أكْلُهُ لِحُمُوضَتِهِ حُمُوضَةَ الخَلِّ لا بَأْسَ بِأكْلِهِ وعَلى هَذا كُلُّ ما صُبَّ فِيهِ الخَلُّ وصارَ خَلًّا، وكَذا لَوْ وقَعَتْ فَأْرَةٌ فِي خَمْرٍ واسْتُخْرِجَتْ قَبْلَ التَّفَسُّخِ ثُمَّ صارَتْ خَلًّا؛ فَلَوْ بَعْدَهُ لا يَحِلُّ.
والخَلُّ النَّجِسُ إذا صُبَّ فِي خَمْرٍ فَصارَ خَلًّا يَكُونُ نَجِسًا؛ لِأنَّ النَّجَسَ لَمْ يَتَغَيَّرْ وإذا أُلْقِيَ فِي الخَمْرِ رَغِيفٌ أوْ بَصَلٌ ثُمَّ صارَ ا لخَمْرُ خَلًّا فالصَّحِيحُ أنَّهُ طاهِرٌ. اهـ.. وسَيَأْتِي شَيْءٌ مِن ذَلِكَ فِي الفُرُوعِ آخِرَ الفَصْلِ الآتِي
And if the water is poured into wine or vice versa, and then made into vinegar, it is cleansed, unlike if a mouse fell into it, then it was taken out. Because it became unclean after permeation because it became impure after permeation contrast to what was taken out before it.
Likewise, if a mouse falls into juice or a dog licks it, then it ferments, and then made vinegar, it is not cleansed.
alcohol pour in a pot of food and then poured in it the vinegar and then that became sour so that it is not edible due to acidity of the vinegar. There is no harm in consuming it and likewise, the same ruling will apply to anything which falls in vinegar and becomes vinegar. 4
Hence, in the aforementioned case due to the Tabdeelul Mahiyah, it would be permissible to take Glucosamine Hydrochloride.
Only Allah knows best
Written by Maulana Syed Johir Miah
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham
4 Raddul Muhtar p.315 v.1, Darul Fikr, Beirut, 1992.