Is classical Arabic necessary for the Jummah khutbah

Fatwa ID: 02622

Answered by: Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Question

"We have learnt that the Jumu'ah Khutbah must be in Arabic language, according to what Mufti Taqi Usmani wrote ("The Language of the Friday Khutbah").

Now, I would like to know what's the ruling of having a Khutbah in an Arabic dialect (as in Moroccan): what's its status?
And what if most part of the Khutbah is in Classical Arabic (Fussha), interrupted by parts in Moroccan (or another Arabic dialect) to explain some concepts to the audience made up of not so knowledgeable laymen? What would its status be?

In general, is an Arabic dialect considered the same as Classical Arabic?
Please note that certain dialects (as North-African ones) are quite different from Fussha, having different words, pronunciation and grammar".

Answer

The following conditions must be met in order for Jummah Salah to be obligatory:

1. To be male
2. To be within the boundary of a town (Muqeem)
3. To be healthy (physically able to perform Salah)
4. The road should be safe
5. Not to be physically handicapped.

(Kitabul Fiqh p.603 v.1)

The following conditions are necessary for the Jummah Salah to be correct:

1. A large town

The Jummah Salah will not be valid unless it is held in large towns or cities. To hold Jummah Salah in small villages is not permissible. Saaiduna Ali Radiallahu Anhu has said, “The Jummah and Eid prayers cannot be held except in large towns.” (Mussanaf Abdur Razzaq)

2. Time of Zuhr prayer
3. The Khutbah
4. Congregation
5.
Izn Aaam (general call for the prayer)

With regards to your question, as your workplace is no more than 77 km from your home (this is the distance required in order for you to be considered a traveller thus excluding you from Jummah Salah), then you should hold the Jummah Salah at the place of work:

1. The village you work in is big enough to be considered as a large town or city.

A large town is where the number of males upon whom the Jummah Salah is compulsory is so large that no mosque in the town could accommodate all of them together. (Ilmul Fiqh p.146 v.2)

Another definition of Mufti Mahmood Saheb (RA) is that the village is such that there are shopping malls, basic necessities can be found and the local population is between three and four thousand. (Fatawa Mahmoodiyah p.301 v.1)

There are three people besides the Imam (four Muslims) constitutes a congregation. The presence of females or minors only is not enough. (Raddul Muhtar p.24 v.3)

From the aforementioned information, we can determine that the khutbah is an integral part of the Jummah salah. The sunnah of the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam and the Companions was to perform the khutbah in classical Arabic. Therefore, the conclusion to your question is that it will be considered Makruh Tanzihi (slightly disliked) to perform the khutbah in Arabic dialect.

Only Allah Knows Best

Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham.

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