Ruling of water according to the four Imams

Fatwa ID: 02608

Answered by: Molana Eunus Ali

Question

Assalamu alaikkum Mufthi saab..

Question related on wudu:
What is the Four Fiqh tells about conditions for the usage of water on Wudu issue like قلتين water ( ShafiFiqh), 15 x 15 x 5 Cubic Foot capacity of Water (HanafiFiqh). Why they are in different Condition for Usage of Water. Please Explain the above matter On the basis of Quran and Sunnah and also Majority of Ulamas.JazakallahuKhair..

Answer

When impurity falls into water, the ruling regarding the usage of the water for wudhu, ghusl etc. will change according to the quantity of water and changing of the quality. Please see below for the ruling according to the 4 madhab:

  1. Hanafi: A body of water that is less than 10×10 cubits is considered a small quantity of water. If impurity falls into this amount of water, it will be regarded as impure even though no quality of the water has changed.

If the amount of water is 10 by 10 cubits or more, it will be considered to be a large quantity of water. If impurity was to fall into this amount of water it will not be regarded as impure. However, if any one of the three qualities (taste, smell, and colour) were to change, the water will become impure and impermissible for wudhu and ghusl etc. (MaraqiyalFalah, Page 27-28, QadimiKutubKhanah& Al Binayahsharh Al Hidayah, Volume 1, Page 384-386, DarulKutubulIlmiyyah)

  1. Maliki: There is no specified limit for the small or large quantity of water. If impurity falls into the water, it will not be considered impure until one of the three qualities change.

If however the water container is small and a small amount of impurity falls into the container which does not change the qualities of the water, it will be considered makrooh (disliked) to use for wudhu etc. (Al FiqhulIslamiywaAdillatuh, Volume 1, Page 127-128, DarulFikr)

  1. Shaf’i and Hambli: When the body of water is approximately 50 gallons (قلتين) it will be considered to be a large quantity of water. If impurity was to fall into this amount of water it will not be regarded as impure. However, if any one of the three qualities (taste, smell, and colour) were to change, the water will become impure and impermissible for wudhu and ghusl etc. (ibid)

The scholars of Hadith and jurisprudence have applied various principals (Usool Al Fiqh) to analyse the text of the Quran and Hadith in deducing Islam rulings. As a result of this, they have arrived at different conclusions, all based on the Quran and Sunnah. (Differences of the Imams by MaulanaZakariyyahKhandehlawi, Page 39)

The Imams of the four schools of thought have done a very great favour for us by deducing the rulings from the Quran and Hadith and codifying the laws of Islam, making it easy for us to act upon Islam with ease.

We make dua that Allah accepts all their efforts and grants them a lofty status in Jannah. Ameen

Only Allah knows best

Written by Molana Eunus Ali

Checked and Approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham

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