Fatwa ID: 04609
Answered by: Maulana Jamal Ahmed
Why does Allah stipulate Jizya tax from non-Muslims living under Islamic rulers in the Quran?
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
Jizya is a tax which the non-Muslims are charged for living under the protection of a Muslim government. Due to this tax, they are entitled to all the facilities which other citizens are entitled to. This also ensures the protection of their life and wealth. This tax is also a practical manifestation and a renewal of the pledge that they will respect the laws and regulations of the country and that they will be supportive in maintaining security and justice.
Jizya is not to humiliate the non-Muslims, rather it is in exchange for their protection and defense against foreign attacks. It is an obligation of a Muslim to protect the borders of the country and they cannot force the non-Muslims to fight for the country, thus they are obliged to pay a little tax for their protection. There are instances where the jizyah was returned to the non-Muslims because the Muslims could not protect them. (Extracted from Qamusul Fiqh, pg. 100, vol. 3, Zamzam publishers.)
Only Allah knows best.
Written by Maulana Jamal Ahmed
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham