Asalamualaikum, is it wajib for women to perform Eid prayer? If she missed it what is the expiation?
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.
The conditions which are required for Jummah Salah to be obligatory is also needed for Eid Salah to be obligatory.
The following conditions must be met in order for Jummah Salah to be obligatory:
- To be male
- To be within the boundary of a town (Muqeem)
- To be healthy (physically able to perform Salah)
- The road should be safe
- Not to be physically handicapped.
(Kitabul Fiqh p.603 v.1)
The following conditions are necessary for the Jummah Salah to be correct:
- A large town
The Jummah Salah will not be valid unless it is held in large towns or cities. To hold Jummah Salah in small villages is not permissible. Saaiduna Ali Radiallahu Anhu has said “The Jummah and Eid prayers cannot be held except in large towns.” (Mussanaf Abdur Razzaq)
- Time of Zuhr prayer
- The Khutbah
- Izn Aaam (general call for the prayer)
With regards to your question, as your workplace is no more than 77 km from your home (this is the distance required in order for you to be considered a traveller thus excluding you from Jummah Salah), then you should hold the Jummah Salah at the place of work:
- The village you work in is big enough to be considered as a large town or city.
A large town is where the number of males upon whom the Jummah Salah is compulsory is so large that no mosque in the town could accommodate all of them together. (Ilmul Fiqh p.146 v.2)
Another definition of Mufti Mahmood Saheb (RA) is that the village is such that there are shopping malls, basic necessities can be found and the local population is between three and four thousand. (Fatawa Mahmoodiyah p.301 v.1)
- There are three people besides the Imam (four Muslims) at your workplace which will constitute the congregation. The presence of females or minors only is not enough. (Raddul Muhtar p.24 v.3)
Eid Salah is not obligatory upon women as one of the conditions for Jummah is that one has to be a male. Therefore, the conclusion we can come to is that Eid Salah is not obligatory upon women, hence, there is no need for expiation.
Only Allah Knows Best
Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham