Assalamulaykum Mufti saheb if you don’t mind could you please give me the full procedure of leading a janaazah namaaz with all its requirements also include duas etc while the burial is taking place.
In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.
There is a consensus among all the jurists that a funeral prayer for a deceased person is a collective obligation (fard kifayah).
Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet, peace be upon him, was informed of the death of a person, he used to ask: Does he owe anything to anyone?' If the answer was in the affirmative, he would then ask: 'Has he (the deceased) left anything to settle his debt?' If he had left something to settle his debt, he would offer the funeral prayer for him. Otherwise, he would say to the Muslims: 'Offer a (funeral) prayer for your brother"' (Bukhari and Muslim).
The prerequisites for a funeral prayer are the same as for the obligatory prayers. Anyone intending to offer funeral prayer must be in a state of purity, be free from all minor and major impurities, must cover his or her "satr," (the covering of the body parts that must be covered) and stand facing the direction of the Kabah.
The body of the deceased should be placed in front of the Imam who should stand in line with the chest of the deceased with the head on the right side while facing qiblah.
After having made intention the imam should raise both hands up to the ears while saying “Allahu Akbar” loudly and then fold them under the navel as in the normal daily prayers. Then recite thana (Subhanakal lahumma…) softly. After reciting thana “Allahu akbar” should be said without raising the hands in this takbeer and also all subsequent takbeers. Recite the durood which is read in the tashahud in normal salah. i.e (Allahumma Salli ala Muhammad wa ala ali Muhammad kama sallayta…). Then say “Allahu akbar” for the third takbeer and thereafter recite the dua for the deceased.
For adults recite the following:
Allahummaghfir lihayatina wa mayatina wa shahidina wa ghaibina wa saghirina wa kabirina wa dhakirina wa unthana. Allahumma man ahyatahu minna fa ahyihi alal Islam wa man tawaffaytahu minna fatawaffahu ala iman.
Transalation: O Allah! Forgive our living, our dead, those of us who are present, and those who are absent, our young, our old, our males and our females,. O Allah! Whomsoever among us You keep to live, make him to live in Islam, and whomsoever You cause to die, let him die in faith.
Or alternatively the following can be recited:
Allahummaghfir lahu warhamhu wa aafahu wa aafu anhu wa akrim nuzulahu wa wassi mudkhalahu waghsilhu bilmaee wa thalji wal baradi wa naqqih hu minal khataya kama yunaqqis thaubul abyadu minad danas wa abdilhu daran khairan min darihi wa ahlan khairan min ahlihi wa zaujan khairan min zaujihi wa adkhilhul jannata wa a izhu min adhabil qabri wa adhabin naar.
Transalation: O Allah! Pardon him, have mercy on him, and give him security and forgive him and ennoble his descent, cause his entrance to be wide and comfortable, wash him with the most pure and clean water, and purify him from sins as a white garment is washed clean of dirt. Give him in exchange a home better than his home (on earth) and a family better than his family, and a wife better than his wife, and admit him to paradise and protect him from the trial of the grave and the torture of Hell Fire.
If the deceased is a minor boy, then recite:
Allahumma ij alhu lana farataw waj alhu lana ajraw wa dhukraw waj alhu lana shafiaw wa mushaffaa.
Transalation: O Allah! Make him our forerunner and make him (a means of) reward for us and a treasure and make him an intercessor for us and one whose intercession is accepted.
If the deceased is a minor girl then recite the above dua but instead of hu recite “ha” (in the three places indicated above).
After reciting the dua for the deceased say “Allahu akbar” (forth takbeer) and thereafter turn the face right and then left while saying salam (assalamu alaykum wa rahmatullah) loudly.
After the funeral prayer is performed the deceased should be buried as soon as possible. The deceased should be placed at the side of the grave with the head on the right side when one faces the qiblah. While the body is being lowered the following dua should be recited: Bissmillahi wa ala millati rasulullah. (In the name of Allah and on the relgion and faith of Rasulullah).
Turn the body of the deceased in the grave onto its right side so that it faces the qiblah. Thereafter start filling the grave with the same amount of soil that was dug out. All those present should participate and should start from the head and should recite with the first fistful “Minha khalaqnaqum” (From the (earth) did We create you.), with the second handful “wa fiha nueedukum” (and into it shal We return you) and at the third handful “wa minha nukhrijukum tharatan ukhra” (and from it shall We bring you out once again).
After finishing filling the grave (the shape of which should be made like the hump of a camel) one should stay behind for a while and pray for the deceased as the Prophet (sallal lahu alayhi wa sallam) said: “Beseech forgiveness from Allah for your brother and make dua for his steadfastness because he is going to be questioned now.” (Abu Dawood)
Ibn Umar (radi allahu anhu) used to prefer the recitation of of the fist ruku of Surah Bakarah (Alif laam meem…) at the headside and the last ruku of Surah Bakarah (Aamanar rasulu…) at the leg side.
May Allah give us the ability to prepare ourselves for the journey of the hereafter by following the path shown to us by his noble Prophet (sallal lahu alayhi wa sallam).*
Only Allah knows best.
Darul Ifta, Birmingham
* The procedure for the funeral prayer and burial were extracted from the books Raddul Muhtar and Fiqhus Sunnah.