Should Fidyah Be Paid on Behalf of a Dead Person Who Didn’t Fast for Many Years

CategoriesSawm (fast) [196]

Fatwa ID: 05386

 

Answered by: Mufti Jamal Ahmed

 

Question

 

Assalamu Alaikum,

Respected Sheikh, my question is should Fidyah (the penalty for not fasting) be paid on behalf of a dead person who didn’t fast for many years? If yes,  then what is the ruling if the number of years she didn’t fast is not known? A detail of the question is that my mother didn’t fast for an unknown number of years due to negligence & because she was disabled to some extent for a long time but she could be able to fast in that condition.

 

 

In the name of Allah the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

 

Answer

 

If a person missed some fasts due to illness and thereafter he recovered from that illness, but for some reason, he could not make up for those missed fasts then it is wajib for him to make a will for fidyah to be paid, for the number of fasts missed.

 

The same rule applies to those who missed fasts due to being on a journey or out of negligence.

 

The fidyah will be paid from one-third of the wealth left behind by the deceased, after paying for the funeral expenses and any outstanding debts. If the heirs allow, then the whole amount of the wealth can be used for the purpose of fidyah.

 

If the deceased does not make a will, the heirs are not bound to pay for the fidyah, although, they can do it out of their own goodwill.

 

If the number of years is not known then form a dominant opinion, and pay the fidyah accordingly. 

 

(قَوْلُهُ: وَلَا قَضَاءَ إنْ مَاتَا عَلَيْهِمَا) أَيْ وَلَا قَضَاءَ عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ وَالْمُسَافِرِ إذَا مَاتَا قَبْلَ الصِّحَّةِ وَالْإِقَامَةِ؛ لِأَنَّهُمَا لَمْ يُدْرِكَا عِدَّةً مِنْ أَيَّامٍ أُخَرَ فَلَمْ يُوجَدْ شَرْطُ وُجُوبِ الْأَدَاءِ فَلَمْ يَلْزَمْ الْقَضَاءُ قَيَّدَ بِهِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَوْ صَحَّ الْمَرِيضُ أَوْ أَقَامَ الْمُسَافِرُ وَلَمْ يَقْضِ حَتَّى مَاتَ لَزِمَهُ الْإِيصَاءُ بِقَدْرِهِ

(Bahrur Raiq vol.2 pg. 305 Darul Kutub Al Islami)

 

(قَوْلُهُ: وَيُطْعِمُ وَلِيُّهُمَا لِكُلِّ يَوْمٍ كَالْفِطْرَةِ بِوَصِيَّةٍ) أَيْ يُطْعِمُ وَلِيُّ الْمَرِيضِ وَالْمُسَافِرِ عَنْهُمَا عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ أَدْرَكَاهُ كَصَدَقَةٍ الْفِطْرِ إذَا أَوْصَيَا بِهِ

(Bahrur Raiq vol. 2 pg. 306, Darul Kutub Al Islami)

 

وَلَوْ قَالَ وَيُطْعِمُ وَلِيُّ مَنْ مَاتَ وَعَلَيْهِ قَضَاءُ رَمَضَانَ لَكَانَ أَشْمَلَ؛ لِأَنَّ هَذَا الْحُكْمَ لَا يَخُصُّ الْمَرِيضَ وَالْمُسَافِرَ وَلَا مَنْ أَفْطَرَ لِعُذْرٍ بَلْ يَدْخُلُ فِيهِ مَنْ أَفْطَرَ مُتَعَمِّدًا وَوَجَبَ الْقَضَاءُ عَلَيْهِ

وَلَوْ فَاتَ صَوْمُ رَمَضَانَ بِعُذْرِ الْمَرَضِ أَوْ السَّفَرِ وَاسْتَدَامَ الْمَرَضُ وَالسَّفَرُ حَتَّى مَاتَ لَا قَضَاءَ عَلَيْهِ لَكِنَّهُ إنْ أَوْصَى بِأَنْ يُطْعَمَ عَنْهُ صَحَّتْ وَصِيَّتُهُ، وَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِبْ عَلَيْهِ، وَيُطْعَمُ عَنْهُ مِنْ ثُلُثِ مَالِهِ 

 فَإِنْ لَمْ يُوصِ وَتَبَرَّعَ عَنْهُ الْوَرَثَةُ جَازَ، وَلَا يَلْزَمُهُمْ مِنْ غَيْرِ إيصَاءٍ

(Fatawa Hindiyah, vol 1, pg. 228 Darul Kutub Al Ilmiyah)

 

قَوْلُهُ مِنْ الثُّلُثِ) أَيْ ثُلُثِ مَالِهِ بَعْدَ تَجْهِيزِهِ وَإِيفَاءِ دُيُونِ الْعِبَادِ، فَلَوْ زَادَتْ الْفِدْيَةُ عَلَى الثُّلُثِ لَا يَجِبُ الزَّائِدُ إلَّا بِإِجَازَةِ الْوَارِثِ (قَوْلُهُ وَهَذَا) أَيْ إخْرَاجُهَا مِنْ الثُّلُثِ فَقَطْ لَوْ لَهُ وَارِثٌ لَمْ يَرْضَ بِالزَّائِدِ (قَوْلُهُ وَإِلَّا) أَيْ بِأَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ وَارِثٌ فَتَخْرُجُ مِنْ الْكُلِّ: أَيْ لَوْ بَلَغَتْ كُلَّ الْمَالِ تَخْرُجُ مِنْ الْكُلِّ؛

(Raddul Muhtar vol. 2, pg. 424, Darul Fikr Beirut 1992)

 

 

 

Only Allah knows best

Written by Mufti Jamal Ahmed

Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham

 

 

 

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