The interpretation of Nothing can change the Divine Decree except dua

Fatwa ID: 01502

Answered by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Question:

Assalam o Alaikum! Reference to the Hadith of Rasulullah (SallAllahu Alayhi Wa Sallam) ,
"Nothing can  change the Divine Decree except dua." (Jami' Al-Tirmidhi, Vol. 2, P. 35, HM Saeed)
    and verse in the Holy Quran:
"And of knowledge you have been given but little" (17:85)
I want to ask the relationship between dua and taqdeer.If a person has a JAIZ HAJAT for a worldly need which needs to be fulfilled and he makes sincerely efforts with sincerity and devotion and also make lot of DUA to Allah Almighty with deep faith and hope that Allah will fulfill his worldly jaiz requirement because He can do what He wants to do and none can share His sovereignty and powers then should the person think that it might not be in his taqdeer.
Sir, I am an unmarried girl and finding difficulty in getting married. My family and I am making sincere efforts for a reasonable proposal and making lot of prayers/duas to for the same purpose but some of our relatives say that I should be patient and content with my taqdeer as Allah might have not written a spouse for me. This makes me very panic and hurt. This is my worldly need and Allah has liked it for His man to get marry and lead a life of piety and morality. Being a young female, I need a support of a Husband who could support me financially and provide me protection because my parents have become aged and I have a long life (Allah knows the best) to spend. I pray a lot to Allah and offer 5 times a pray and make dua to Him with great faith that He will satisfy my want. But sometimes due to people’s comments and hidden fear of my heart about written destiny by Allah I get disturb that Allah might have not written a spouse for me. But at the same time the hope and faith in Allah and my prayers to Him make me determined that Allah Has all the Powers and He never disappoint His man and my DUAS/PRAYERS to Him will not fruitless and unrewarding as when we look at the history we see that He listened to the prayers of His Prophets, Walis and closed ones and never disappointed them. Though I am an ordinary and sinful person but I am His slave and only worship Him and ask for repentance and my wants from Him not from anyone else. Sir, I need religious guidance in this matter along with moral support from you.
Also tell me what kind of TAQDEER is changed with Dua as mentioned in the above HADITH (Al-Tirmidhi).

Answer:

Bismillah

In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.

It should be bourn in mind that to discuss or talk about Taqdeer was not the practice of the Salaf.

Saaiduna Abu Hurairah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) came to us when we were arguing about Taqdeer.  He was angry and his face became so red that it looked as if pomegranate seeds had been burst upon his cheeks.  He then said “Is this what you were commanded to do? Or was it for this purpose that I was sent to you?  Your predecessors perished only when they argued about this matter.  I adjure you, I adjure you, not to argue about it.” ’  (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

Saaidah Aaisha Radiallahu Anha narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said “He who discusses any aspect of Tadeer will be questioned about it on the Day of Judgement but he who does not discuss it will not be questioned about it.”   (Sunan Ibn Majah p.9 v.1)

With regards to your question, accepting Imaan and faith on Taqdeer is an integral part of being a believer.

Saaiduna Jabir Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said “You can never be a Muslim (believer) as long as you do not believe in Taqdeer, in it’s good and its bad to such an extent that whatever is to happen will be warded off and whatever is not to happen will not occur”.  (Sunan Tirmizi p.36 v.2)

Saaiduna Abu Darda raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) has said that Allah has already pre destined five things for all people: age, sustenance, deeds, place of burial and final salvation or condemnation.  (Musnad Ahmad)

Saaiduna Abdullah Ibn Umar raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) has said that all things are subject to destiny, even wisdom and stupidity.  (Sahih Muslim)

The concept of destiny may further be explained by understanding destiny to be Allah’s knowledge of how the individual is going to use his free-will rather than a pre-decided factor being enforced upon him without giving him a fair chance. Consider the following example: An appointment is arranged between two individuals. The first arrives before time and waits for the second; he then comments that the second will arrive late as always. He bases his prediction on previous experience and the lax nature of the second individual. This statement does not restrict or bound the latter’s ability to attend on time in any way, it is merely an assertion. Similarly, when Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) informs us, through his infinite knowledge, of his knowledge of our precise actions and our consequent abode it should not be perceived to be a compelling decision against our free will, but rather only his knowledge of our decisions.

To summarise, every individual has been given free will and should use it to work towards attaining the pleasure of Allah and that Allah has full knowledge of the individual’s actions; past, present and future.

The hadith which you mentioned in the question is a hadith narrated by Saaiduna Salman Farsi raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said, “Nothing can   change the Divine Decree except dua…” (Sunan Tirmizip.35 v.2)

The meaning of the following hadith is that Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) decides at such and such time and date that something will be averted by such a person because he will make dua to Allah asking for protection. This is what Allah has decided. What eventually happens is that at such and such time and date that person makes dua and as a result of that the thing is averted. So it was in that person’s taqdeer that something would be avoided as a result of the dua. (Durus Tirmizi, Molana Raees Uddin, p.179 v.3)

Regarding your situation, whenever Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) inflicts any hardships or calamity upon anyone, the purpose for this is to either test his true servants as Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) in the Holy Quran has said,

“Be sure we shall test you with something of fear, and hunger and some loss of wealth and lives and fruits and glad tidings to those that bear patience”.  (Suarh Baqarah v.156)

Sometimes it so happens for it to be a lesson for the people coming after not to commit that deed again as Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) states in the Holy Quran:

“And indeed before you we sent (Messengers) too many nations so we seized them with suffering and adversity so that they may fall into humility.”  (Surah Anaam v.42)

Or these tests can be a means of purification for the pious people.  The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) has said when a persons sins increases and nothing remains to remove it then Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) inflicts this person with such sorrow, which expiates his sins.  (Tafsir Ibn Kathir)

I will advise you to do two things. Firstly, pray Salatul Hajah and ask Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) for a pious husband who will Insha Allah look after your needs. It is narrated by Saaiduna Abdullah Bin Abi Awfah raḍyAllāhu 'anhu (may Allāh be pleased with him) that the Prophet of Allah said; “Whoever, has any need from Allah or anyone of his children, let him make Wudhu and let him make it well, then after two rakaats of Salah, praise Allah and invoice benedictions upon the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) then say;

LA ILAHA ILAL-LA HUL HALIMUL KARIM. SUBHANAL-LAHIL RABBIL ARSHIL AZIM. ALHAMDULILAHI RABBIL ALAMIN. AS ALUKA MUJIBATI RAHMATIK. WA AZAIMA MAGFIRATIK, WAL GANIMATA MIN KULI BIRR, WAS-SALAMATA MIN KULI ITHM LA TADA LI DHAMBAN ILLA GHAFARTAH WA LA HAMMAN ILLA FARAJTAH, WALA HAJATAN HIYA LAKA RIDAN ILLA QADIYTAHA YA ARHAMAR RAHIMIN.

There is no god but Allah, the most for bearing, most bountiful, glory be to Allah, Lord of the magnificent throne. All praises is for Allah, Lord of the Universe. I beg you for all that causes your mercy, determines Your forgiveness, a wealth of every form of piety and security from every sin. O’Allah, do not leave any sin of mine but that you have forgiven it, nor any worry but that you have uplifted it, nor any need which conforms with your pleasure but that you have fulfilled it, O most merciful of all that show mercy! (Sunan Timizi p.108 v.1)

From the above hadith we can deduce that if any Muslim has any need or problems which need to be fulfilled, then one can pray two rakaats Salatul Hajah read the above dua and ask Allah subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) to fulfil the particular need in question.

Secondly, you read the following Quranic dua  "Rabbana Aatina fid dunya hasana wa fi'l aakhirati hasana wa qina `adhab an-nar." (O Lord! Grant us good in this life, and good in the next, and save us from the torment of the Fire) (Surah Baqarah v.200).

The phrase “good in this life” according to Imam Ahmad Bin Muhammad As Sawi the author of Hashiyatus Sawi Alal Jalalain means a pious wife (or husband). (Tafsir Jalalain p.30)

Only Allah Knows Best

Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham.

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