Confusion about issues on Taqdeer

Fatwa ID: 02422

Answered by: Maulana Mujahid Hussain

Question:

Asslam-o-Alaikum i'm basically confused on the matter of "Taqdeer" you can say or fate or destiny. i'm confused because maybe i am a person who wants to follow word by word. i wanted to know do ALLAH written everything since start to end of universe everything? like (every single thing? including his orders/decision?) with his order i mean this person will get tested at this time etc? (thats actually first question is GOD's orders also added?)

2-Because in that hadith That "PEN" ones that write it says about creation i'm talking about that hadith in which its written God created men and said write and he wrote the decrees of creation so since he said creation i am confused is only creation deeds are mentioned? ALLAH's decisions/orders not?

3-And if things are easy i mean everything everything is mentioned since starting like ALLAH's orders too not a leaf can fall thats also i mean everything not just creation actions then there will be maybe no confusion but since the word in that hadith is maybe used creation i am confused because i am not that type of person who are confused who say GOD wrote so i am doing like robots but i am confused how much is written and what is exactly written

4-in that hadith maybe also says that its written till hour begins or starting day of judgement now some say even this is written you will be from heaven or paradise so i am confused what is exactly written and how much its written in lohe mehfooz till starting day of judgement or till the end like who will be from hell or paradise?

5-its so easy if we know everything has been written already till end if we say we can do a thing we can strive in matter but when we know even after doing if that is not happening we can say its ALLAH's decision he wrote this like he don't wanted this as i feel here one more thing that We have free will but not exactly totally free will like we can not control any difficulty by ALLAH we can only react to it nicely and bear it with patience so  we can still say? there is ALLAH's decision in somebody's free will too like He will get this car from ALLAH and its in lohe mehfooz too like i feel we don't have full full free will we can do good or bad but still as i said we cannot control diffictlties we say in things like this then we can do strive nad in the end can say it was not in our destiny because ALLAH don't wanted this to happen he didn't wrote this in my destiny so how will it happen?

so it will be very relief if you can solve this i am so confused

please clear my confusion basically in short (Summary)

1- How much is written till beginning of the day of universe to the end of universe (even who will be from hell or paradise)

2-IS ALLAH's decisions too written too? or only creations actions written?

3-we do have free will but still we dont have full control too na? we can not stop ALLAH to testing us etc or if ALLAH doesn't like Wrote a thing in our destinyno matter what we do it will be not come to us (i mean ALLAH is still having role even after giving us free will)?

*Please answer from quran and Sahih hadees i mean right ones as i do not follow any madhab i try to be muslim only and follow what is right the right saying of maybe prophet and quran so it means i don't follow maybe any madhabs hanfi or something like this* hope what i do this this madhab thing is right too na? or i have to follow? because some people becomes blind followers while following madhab maybe.

Answer

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Brother, your question is difficult to understand but I will try to answer Inshallah.

  • Firstly Allah Has written everything regarding creation in the lawhe mahfooz.

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِو، بْنِ الْعَاصِ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏ "‏ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ مَقَادِيرَ الْخَلاَئِقِ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَخْلُقَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ – قَالَ – وَعَرْشُهُ عَلَى الْمَاءِ ‏"

Abdullah b. 'Amr b. al-'As reported:

“I heard Allah's Messenger as saying: Allah ordained the measures  of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and the earth, as His Throne was upon water”.[1]

Also :

قَالَ عُبَادَةُ بْنُ الصَّامِتِ لاِبْنِهِ يَا بُنَىَّ إِنَّكَ لَنْ تَجِدَ طَعْمَ حَقِيقَةِ الإِيمَانِ حَتَّى تَعْلَمَ أَنَّ مَا أَصَابَكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُخْطِئَكَ وَمَا أَخْطَأَكَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لِيُصِيبَكَ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ إِنَّ أَوَّلَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ الْقَلَمَ فَقَالَ لَهُ اكْتُبْ ‏.‏ قَالَ رَبِّ وَمَاذَا أَكْتُبُ قَالَ اكْتُبْ مَقَادِيرَ كُلِّ شَىْءٍ حَتَّى تَقُومَ السَّاعَةُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ يَا بُنَىَّ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ مَنْ مَاتَ عَلَى غَيْرِ هَذَا فَلَيْسَ مِنِّي

Ubadah b. al Samit said to his son :Son! You will not get the taste of the reality of faith until you know that what has come to you could not miss you, and that what has missed you could not come to you. I heard the Messenger of Allah say: The first thing Allah created was the pen. He said to it: Write. It asked: What should I write, my Lord? He said: Write what was decreed about everything till the Last Hour comes. Son! I heard the Messenger of Allah say : He who dies on something other than this does not belong to me.[2]

  • However you must know everything other then Allah is creation,  regardless if it has life or not. So every stone,  leaf, angel,  space particleand human is  creation. Likewise every action,  movement  or a lack of it is also a creation. Allah says:

وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَكُمْ وَمَا تَعْمَلُونَ – 37:96

“While Allah created you and that which you do?"

  • So whatever takes place relating to anything is written down. Likewise Allah’s decisions, orders actions are related to the creation. So for example if  Allah wishes to raise Zaid  in status then that decision of Allah is related to Zaid who is a creation,  hence this is also written in lawhe Mahfooz.

Allah (s.w.t.) says :

وَمَا مِنْ غَائِبَةٍ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ – 27:75

“And there is nothing concealed within the heaven and the earth except that it is in a clear book”.

He the almighty also says:

أَلَمْ تَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۗ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ فِي كِتَابٍ ۚ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ – 22:70

“Do you not know that Allah knows what is in the heaven and earth? Indeed, that is in a Book Indeed that, for Allah, is easy”.

Allah (s.w.t.) also tell us:

وَمَا تَكُونُ فِي شَأْنٍ وَمَا تَتْلُو مِنْهُ مِن قُرْآنٍ وَلَا تَعْمَلُونَ مِنْ عَمَلٍ إِلَّا كُنَّا عَلَيْكُمْ شُهُودًا إِذْ تُفِيضُونَ فِيهِ ۚ وَمَا يَعْزُبُ عَن رَّبِّكَ مِن مِّثْقَالِ ذَرَّةٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ وَلَا فِي السَّمَاءِ وَلَا أَصْغَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ وَلَا أَكْبَرَ إِلَّا فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ – 10:61

“And, [O Muhammad], you are not [engaged] in any matter or recite any of the Qur’an and you [people] do not do any deed except that We are witness over you when you are involved in it. And not absent from your Lord is any [part] of an atom’s weight within the earth or within the heaven or [anything] smaller than that or greater but that it is in a clear book”

  • Certain events taking place after the day of judgment are also written down such as who will enter Paradise and who will enter Hellfire.

عَنْ عَلِيٍّ، عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ قَالَ كُنَّا فِي جَنَازَةٍ فِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم بِبَقِيعِ الْغَرْقَدِ فَجَاءَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَجَلَسَ وَمَعَهُ مِخْصَرَةٌ فَجَعَلَ يَنْكُتُ بِالْمِخْصَرَةِ فِي الأَرْضِ ثُمَّ رَفَعَ رَأْسَهُ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ مَا مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ مَا مِنْ نَفْسٍ مَنْفُوسَةٍ إِلاَّ قَدْ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ مَكَانَهَا مِنَ النَّارِ أَوْ مِنَ الْجَنَّةِ إِلاَّ قَدْ كُتِبَتْ شَقِيَّةً أَوْ سَعِيدَةً ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ يَا نَبِيَّ اللَّهِ أَفَلاَ نَمْكُثُ عَلَى كِتَابِنَا وَنَدَعُ الْعَمَلَ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ السَّعَادَةِ لَيَكُونَنَّ إِلَى السَّعَادَةِ وَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الشِّقْوَةِ لَيَكُونَنَّ إِلَى الشِّقْوَةِ قَالَ ‏"‏ اعْمَلُوا فَكُلٌّ مُيَسَّرٌ أَمَّا أَهْلُ السَّعَادَةِ فَيُيَسَّرُونَ لِلسَّعَادَةِ وَأَمَّا أَهْلُ الشِّقْوَةِ فَيُيَسَّرُونَ لِلشِّقْوَةِ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ نَبِيُّ اللَّهِ ‏"‏ ‏{‏ فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى * وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى * فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى * وَأَمَّا مَنْ بَخِلَ وَاسْتَغْنَى * وَكَذَّبَ بِالْحُسْنَى * ‏.‏ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْعُسْرَى ‏}‏ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

Ali (r.a.) said:We attended a funeral at Baql’ al-Gharqad which was also attended by the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him). The Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) came and sat down. He had a stick (in his hand) by which he began to scratch up the ground. He then raised his head and said : The place which every one of you and every soul of you will occupy in Hell or in Paradise has been recorded, and destined wicked or blesses. A man from among the people asked : Prophet of Allah! Should we not then trust simply in what has been recorded for us and abandon (doing good) deeds? Those who are among the number of the blessed will be inclined to blessing, and those of us who are among the number of the wicked will be inclined to wickedness. He replied : Go on doing good actions, for everyone is helped to do that for which he was created. Those who are among the number of wicked will be helped to do wicked deeds. The Prophet of Allah (May peace be upon him) then recited: “So he who gives (in charity) and fears (Allah), and in all sincerity testifies to the best, we will indeed make smooth for him the path to bliss. But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient, and denies the best, We will indeed make smooth for him the path of misery.”[3]

Likewise you most probably will be aware of the following Hadees:

عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَهُوَ الصَّادِقُ الْمَصْدُوقُ ‏ "‏ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ يُجْمَعُ خَلْقُهُ فِي بَطْنِ أُمِّهِ فِي أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا ثُمَّ يَكُونُ عَلَقَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضْغَةً مِثْلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يُرْسِلُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ الْمَلَكَ فَيَنْفُخُ فِيهِ وَيُؤْمَرُ بِأَرْبَعٍ يَكْتُبُ رِزْقَهُ وَأَجَلَهُ وَعَمَلَهُ وَشَقِيٌّ أَوْ سَعِيدٌ فَوَالَّذِي لاَ إِلَهَ غَيْرُهُ إِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ ثُمَّ يَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا وَإِنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ لَيَعْمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيْنَهُ وَبَيْنَهَا إِلاَّ ذِرَاعٌ ثُمَّ يَسْبِقُ عَلَيْهِ الْكِتَابُ فَيُخْتَمُ لَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيَدْخُلُهَا ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى وَهَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ ‏.

Abdullah bin Mas'ud ( r.a.) said: The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) narrated to us – and he is the truthful and entrusted one: 'Indeed the creation of one of you is gathered inside his mother in forty days. Then, for a similar period, he is a clot. Then, for a similar period, he is a piece of flesh. Then Allah sends the angel to him to blow the soul into him, and he is ordered to write four (things): To write his provision, his life-span, his works, and whether he will be wretched or happy. By the One besides Whom there is none other worthy of worship! One of you will do deeds of the people of Paradise, until there is between him and it but a forearm span, then he is overcome by what is written for him, and he is sealed off with the deeds of the people of the Fire, so that he enters it. And indeed one of you will do deeds of the people of the Fire, until there is between him and it but a forearm span, then he is overcome by what is written for him, and he is sealed off with the deeds of the people of Paradise, so that he enters it.'"[4]

  • There are two types of things destined. One, we do not have control over such as our height,  skin colour or movement of hand due to Parkinson disease. Second, we do have control over, such as our actions and movement of hand with choice. We are only accountable for the second. In the first Allah (s.w.t)  chose for us and he has written it down. This is part of destiny . In the second ( and this is also part of destiny) Allah has written our choices down. i.e. He has written down what choices we are going to make due to his complete and perfect knowledge of the future. For example a teaches writes down  the grades he/she thinks each student will get based on his/hers experience. If the student were to get those grades, it does not mean the teacher has forced them to achieve such grades. It only implies that the teaches was correct in his/her assumptions. However Allah (s.w.t) is never wrong. He knows what we are going to do and he has written it down. By the  teacher writing it down it does not result in compulsion,  likewise Allah writing our destiny does not also result in compulsion.
  • Finally our Destiny is not only written in the Lawhe Mahfooz but its written down many times.
  1. Before Allah created us as mentioned above.
  2.  After Allah created Adam (a.s) 

فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُسْأَلُ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَبَارَكَ وَتَعَالَى خَلَقَ آدَمَ ثُمَّ مَسَحَ ظَهْرَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ فَاسْتَخْرَجَ مِنْهُ ذُرِّيَّةً فَقَالَ خَلَقْتُ هَؤُلاَءِ لِلْجَنَّةِ وَبِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ يَعْمَلُونَ ثُمَّ مَسَحَ ظَهْرَهُ فَاسْتَخْرَجَ مِنْهُ ذُرِّيَّةً فَقَالَ خَلَقْتُ هَؤُلاَءِ لِلنَّارِ وَبِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ يَعْمَلُونَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَفِيمَ الْعَمَلُ قَالَ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏"‏ إِنَّ اللَّهَ إِذَا خَلَقَ الْعَبْدَ لِلْجَنَّةِ اسْتَعْمَلَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ عَلَى عَمَلٍ مِنْ أَعْمَالِ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَيُدْخِلَهُ بِهِ الْجَنَّةَ وَإِذَا خَلَقَ الْعَبْدَ لِلنَّارِ اسْتَعْمَلَهُ بِعَمَلِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى يَمُوتَ عَلَى عَمَلٍ مِنْ أَعْمَالِ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَيُدْخِلَهُ بِهِ النَّارَ ‏"‏ ‏

Umar ibn al-Khattab said, "I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, being asked about it. The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, 'Allah, the Blessed, the Exalted, created Adam. Then He stroked his back with His right hand, and progeny issued from it. He said, "I created these for the Garden and they will act with the behaviour of the people of the Garden." Then He stroked his back again and brought forth progeny from him. He said, "I created these for the Fire and they will act with the behaviour of the people of the Fire." 'A man said, 'Messenger of Allah! Then of what value are deeds?' The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, answered, 'When Allah creates a slave for the Garden, he makes him use the behaviour of the people of the Garden, so that he dies on one of the actions of the people of the Garden and by it He brings him into the Garden. When He creates a slave for the Fire, He makes him use the behaviour of the people of the Fire, so that he dies on one of the actions of the people of the Fire, and by it, He brings him into the Fire.' "[5]

  • Before each individual is born as mentioned in the Hadees above about how a baby develops in the mother’s womb narrated by Abdullah bin Masood (r.a.)
  • Yearly on the night of power

فِيهَا يُفْرَقُ كُلُّ أَمْرٍ حَكِيمٍ – 44:4

“On that night ( laylatul  Qadr )is made distinct every precise matter”–

Meaning, as the Mufasireen mention ,that particularnight Allah decrees what shall happen in the following year  relating to each individual.

  • Each day

يَسْأَلُهُ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ – 55:29

“Whoever is within the heavens and earth asks Him; every day He is bringing about a matter”.

You will see the Books of Tafseer narrate after this verse:

عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ فِي قَوْلِهِ تَعَالَى ‏{كُلَّ يَوْمٍ هُوَ فِي شَأْنٍ}‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏"‏ مِنْ شَأْنِهِ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ ذَنْبًا وَيُفَرِّجَ كَرْبًا وَيَرْفَعَ قَوْمًا وَيَخْفِضَ آخَرِينَ ‏"‏ ‏.‏

It was narrated from Abu Darda' that:The Prophet said concerning the Verse: "Every day He is (engaged) in some affair." "His affairs include forgiving sins, relieving distress, raising some people and bringing others low."[6]

Allah Knows best. 

Maulana Mujahid Hussain

Checked and approved by Mufti Tosir Miah 

Darul Ifta Birmingham


[1]Muslim Hadees number 6416

[2] Tirmizi number 2155. Abu dawood number 4700.

[3]Bukhari narrates this Hadees in 9 places in his book. Muslim in two places under the chapter of Al Qadr. The hadees is also in Trimizi,  Abu Dawood and Ahmad.

[4]Bukhari narrates it in 4 places. Muslim number 2643. Trimzi abu Dawood Ibn Majah Ahmad also narrate the Hadees

[5]Muatta of Imam Malik Hadees 1626. This Hadees is in Abu dawood  4703, Tirmizi  3075 and Musnad of Imam Ahmad 313.

[6] Ibn Majah hadees number 202. Ibn Hibban classified this hadees as Saheeh. Busairi , Zubair Ali Zai and Albani said this Hadees is Hasan.However Imam Bukhari in his Saheeh and Abu yala in his musnad report this as a saying of Abu darda (r.a.) and not the prophet (p.b.u.h) .

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