Can a Vow Be Made by Merely Thinking of It in the Heart and Mind

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Fatwa ID: 07282

 

 

Answered by: Maulana Ubaidur Rahman

 

Question:

 

I have a habit of making an intention in my heart only (I dont remember ever saying it like a vow) that if this happens I will offer a certain amount of rakaat of shukr or sometimes salatul tauba for doing some sort of sin or making an intension of giving sadqa if something happens.

 

But I don’t remember saying it aloud. Intact I didn’t know you have to say it in certain way.

 

Problem arises when sometimes I forget to do it or don’t remember if I did it or not. Im a very forgetful person when it comes to the matters of deen. I suffer from doubts in almost everything be it wudu, purity etc.

 

Can you explain how a vow is made and is merely thinking in the heart and mind make it a vow? What are the conditions that make a certain intention a vow.

 

 

 

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful

 

Answer:

 

The conditions for when a person makes an oath is that they are possessor of sound intelligence, an adult, a Muslim, and conscious of what they are saying as well as what the oath is being taken for and regarding. This being coupled with an awareness of the implications of breaking the oath – what happens after and the consequences. Also regarding a vow, you have to be of sound capability to confidently complete the vow. You have to take the oath in the name of Allah and it is not permissible to take oath in anything other than Allah i.e. by taking another’s name or another thing.

 

Regarding the doubts which you have in wudhu, you perform one wudhu being conscious and careful of all the actions and only once. Seek refuge in Allah from Shaytaan as it is one of his traits to cast doubts and cause discontentment in a believer’s heart. Also, relating to the vow, you can not only think about making a vow for it to come into effect and its rules becoming established but rather it is upon a person to audibly make the intention and sound out the vow, rather than just simply thinking about it. Vows for good things will only be enforceable and would become obligatory to complete. Vows made regarding sinful actions do not and must not be completed, rather sincere repentance should be made and charity should be given to compensate the vow which was bad having being made. Also to seek refuge in Allah from making such vows at any time in the future.

 

 

 

Only Allah (عز و جل) knows best.

Written by: Maulana Ubaidur Rahman

Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah.

Darul Ifta Birmingham.

 

 

 

 

Raddul Muhtar, Page 752, Volume 3, Maktabatu Shaamila

حَلَفَ لَا يَسْكُنُ هَذِهِ الدَّارَ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ سَاكِنُهَا فِيهَا، لَا يَحْنَثُ حَتَّى يَسْكُنَهَا بِنَفْسِهِ وَيَنْقُلَ إلَيْهَا مِنْ مَتَاعِهِ مَا يُبَاتُ فِيهِ وَيَسْتَعْمِلُهُ فِي مَنْزِلِهِ كَمَا

 

 

Badaai Sanaai, Page 81, Volume 5, Maktabatu Shaamila

 الْكَلَامُ فِي هَذَا الْكِتَابِ فِي الْأَصْلِ فِي ثَلَاثَةِ مَوَاضِعَ: فِي بَيَانِ رُكْنِ النَّذْرِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ شَرَائِطِ الرُّكْنِ، وَفِي بَيَانِ حُكْمِ النَّذْرِ أَمَّا الْأَوَّلُ: فَرُكْنُ النَّذْرِ هُوَ الصِّيغَةُ الدَّالَّةُ عَلَيْهِ وَهُوَ قَوْلُهُ: ” لِلَّهِ عَزَّ شَأْنُهُ عَلَيَّ كَذَا، أَوْ عَلَيَّ كَذَا، أَوْ هَذَا هَدْيٌ، أَوْ صَدَقَةٌ، أَوْ مَالِي صَدَقَةٌ، أَوْ مَا أَمْلِكُ صَدَقَةٌ، وَنَحْوُ ذَلِكَ.

(فَصْلٌ) :

وَأَمَّا شَرَائِطُ الرُّكْنِ فَأَنْوَاعٌ: بَعْضُهَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِالنَّاذِرِ، وَبَعْضُهَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِالْمَنْذُورِ بِهِ، وَبَعْضُهَا يَتَعَلَّقُ بِنَفْسِ الرُّكْنِ.

أَمَّا الَّذِي يَتَعَلَّقُ بِالنَّاذِرِ فَشَرَائِطُ الْأَهْلِيَّةِ:.

(مِنْهَا) الْعَقْلُ.

(وَمِنْهَا) الْبُلُوغُ، فَلَا يَصِحُّ نَذْرُ الْمَجْنُونِ وَالصَّبِيِّ الَّذِي لَا يَعْقِلُ، لِأَنَّ حُكْمَ النَّذْرِ وُجُوبُ الْمَنْذُورِ بِهِ، وَهُمَا لَيْسَا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْوُجُوبِ، وَكَذَا الصَّبِيُّ الْعَاقِلُ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ وُجُوبِ الشَّرَائِعِ، أَلَا تَرَى أَنَّهُ لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِمَا شَيْءٌ مِنْ الشَّرَائِعِ بِإِيجَابِ الشَّرْعِ ابْتِدَاءً؟ فَكَذَا بِالنَّذْرِ،

 

 

 

 

 

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