Fatwa ID: 04096
Answered by: Maulana Naieem Mohammad
Any material on fasting solely on the 10th?
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
The fast of Ashura is definitely a Sunnat of the Prophet (s.a.w.).The following are only a few narrations which speak about it:
- Abdullāh ibn Abbās (r.a.) reports that when the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) was informed that the Jews and Christians revere and honour the 10th of Muḥarram he (s.a.w.) said, “Next year, we will fast on the ninth as well if Allah wills.”
- Abdullāh ibn ʿAbbās(r.a.) reports that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said, “If I am alive next year, I will fast on the ninth as well.”
- Abdullāh ibn ʿAbbās (r.a.) reports that the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) said, “Fast on the day of Āshūrāʾ (10th of Muḥarram) and oppose the Jews. Fast one day before it or one day after it.”
In light of the above, it is virtuous to fast on the 9th and 10th or the 10th and 11th of Muḥarram. In fact, Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar states, “Fasting on the 9th, 10th and 11th of Muḥarram is on the highest level of preference.”
In following his Sunnah (s.a.w.) we have been advised to add one day of fast before it or after it, the reason for this has been clearly given in the Hadith # 3.
If a person fasts only on the 10th due to stubbornness or negligence, then this cannot be called “following the Sunnah” but rather it will be resembling the fasting of the Jews and Christians which is highly undesirable in our deen, but if he fails to fast due to fear of risking one’s health or some other valid excuse then it will be allowed. The Prophet (s.a.w.) himself did fast only on the 10th but indicated the desire for fasting on the 9th if he were to live to see the next year.
Imam Ibn Hajar states that the fasting of Ashura may be any of 3 scenarios and the following is the order of merit from the least preferable to the most preferable:
- Fasting on the 10th only
- Fasting on the 9th and 10th
- Fasting on the 9th,10th and 11th
All of the above will be permissible according to the capability of the person, so if a person is a bit weak but wants to get the virtue of Ashura then he will be allowed to fast on the 10th only and the other options will depend on their willingness to earn reward and the state of their health.
Only Allah knows best
Written by Maulana Naieem Mohammad
Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham