I would like to know how far does the mosque have to be for one to be excused from attending Jumma Prayer?
In the name of Allah, the most beneficent, the most merciful.
Jumma salah is compulsory upon free, adult, sane and healthy men who reside in a city, town or a big village and are able to participate in the prayer without any difficulty, fear or danger to their lives. (Durrul Mukhtar, Vol 1, P602)
However there are some conditions (pre-requisites), which are required to be met before it will be correct and valid to perform Jumma. These are:
- Jumma salah should be performed in a city, town or a large village. It will not be valid if it is held in the jungle, or a small village.
- Jumma should be performed at Zuhr time.
- Khutbah (sermon by the imam) should be delivered before the prayer.
- Jumma should be performed in a congregation which has at least three men besides the imam.
- Izne Aam (permission to all to attend).
Another pre-requisite in an Islamic state, is that the Muslim ruler himself or a deputy appointed by him should organize the Friday Prayer. (Durrul Mukhtar, Vol 1, P590)
When the above conditions are met then it is compulsory for a person to attend Jumma. Allah states in the Quran: “O believers! When the call for Salah (prayer) is made on Friday (the day of congregational prayers), hasten to the remembrance of Allah
and cease your business. That is better for you if you but knew.” (Al Jumu’ah: 9)
Imam Qurtubi in commentary of the above verse states that according to the Hanafi School of thought it is compulsory for a resident of a city, (town or a big village) to hasten towards Jumma regardless of distance and whether he can hear the call to prayer or not. However it will not be compulsory for a person residing outside of the city even if he can hear the call to prayer. (Tafsir-e-Qurtubi, Vol 18, P92)
Only Allah knows best
Darul Ifta, Birmingham