Kaffaarah for breaking a vow

Fatwa ID: 02294

Answered by Molana Muhammad Adnan

Question:

A person made a vow that if they commit a certain sin they will fast every day. They commited the sin so started to fast every day. They managed to keep some but broke a few. Do they have to pay fidya for the fasts they broke?

In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.

Answer:

Bismillah

You will be required to give an expiation (kaffaarah) for not fulfilling your vow. (Mukhtasar Quduuri p.203)

The Kaffrah (Explation) of breaking an oath is mentioned in the Holy Quran

Allah Description: subḥānahu wa ta'āla (glorified and exalted be He) says;

“……its expiation is to feed ten poor people at an average of what you feed your family with or to clothe them or to free a slave. And whoever, finds none shall fast for three days. That is expiation for you oaths when you have sworn…”(Surah Maaidah v.89)

In this verse the first expiation used in connection with Kaffarah of oaths is “itam” which could either mean ‘feed’ or ‘give food’ to someone, hence the jurists have said that the individuals can invite ten poor persons and feed them or he can give the food in their possession. In the first situation, it is necessary that he should feed ten poor persons two meals of the day to take their fill and in the second situation he should give to each of the ten poor persons at the rate of one fitrah per person, that is ,

1.      Approximately 1.6kg of wheat

2.      Approximately 3.2kg of barley

3.      Or the equivalent of the above in cash which will be between £1-£3

If a person is unable to feed the poor then he would fasts for three days consecutively according to the Hanafi Fiqh. (Raddul Muhtar p.532 v.2 & Maariful Quran p.244 v.3)

Written by Molana Muhammad Adnan

Checked and approved by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham

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