If when fasting one suffers from pain in the kidneys due to lack of water what should they do?
In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful.
Allah states in the Quran: “O those who believe, the fasts have been enjoined upon you as were enjoyed upon those before you so that you be God fearing. Days of fasting are few in number. However, should anyone of you be sick or on a journey, then a number from other days… (Surah Al Baqarah :183 & 184)
From the above it is clear that one is exempt from fasting if ill. It is stated in Raddul Muhtar that, It is permissible not to fast for an individual who is ill and fears that his/her illness will increase, or a healthy person who fears that he will become ill due to fasting.(Vol 2, P126)
In conclusion if there is fear, in the opinion of a god fearing Muslim doctor, of damage to the kidney or the illness will increase then the person will be allowed to break the fast. If there is hope that the individual will get better than he/she will be required to fast another day. However if the individual will not get better then he/she may pay compensation of 1.6kg of wheat or its value to the poor for each missed fast.
And Allah knows best.
Darul Ifta Birmingham