The Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam marriage with Saaidah Aaisha Radiallahu Anha

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Fatwa ID: 01640

Answered by Mufti Mohammed Tosir Miah

Question:

The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) marriage with Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her)

Answer:

Bismillah

Before I reply to your question, I will firstly mention some distinctive features of Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her).

  1. Before the marriage to the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him), Saaiduna Jibraeel Alayhis Salam had brought to him her image wrapped in a silk cloth and said to him, ‘She is your wife’.  Saaidah Aaisha Radiallahu Anha narrates that the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) said (to me):  "You have been shown to me twice in (my) dreams. A man was carrying you in a silken cloth and said to me, 'This is your wife.' I uncovered it and behold, it was you. I said to myself, 'If this dream is from Allah, He will cause it to come true.' (Sahih Bukhari p.760 v.2)  
  2. The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) did not marry any maiden girl other than her.
  3. The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) died in her lap.
  4. The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) was buried in her house.
  5. The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) received revelations even at that time when he used to be with Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) under the same quilt.  None of the other wives were granted this distinction.
  6. Her exoneration was sent down from the Heaven. (Maariful Quran p.379 – p.380 v.6)

Regarding the marriage of Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) to the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) at an early age is mentioned in the following hadith.  Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) said: “The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) married me when I was six years old. Then we came to Madinah Munawarah and stayed in Bani Al Haarith Ibn Khazraj. I fell ill and my hair started to fall out (due to the illness; then it grew back thick again). My mother Umm Roomaan came to me whilst I was on a swing and my friends were with me. She shouted for me and I came to her, not knowing what she wanted. She took me by the hand and led me to the door of the house. I was out of breath and we waited until I had calmed down, then she took some water and wiped my face and head, then took me inside. There were some women of the Ansar in the house, and they gave me blessings, best wishes, etc…" My mother handed me over to them and they tidied me up, then suddenly the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam was there. It was mid-morning, and they handed me over to him. At that time I was nine years old." (Sahih Bukhari)

From the aforementioned ahadith, the jurists have said that it is permissible to contract marriage with a young girl. (See Raddul Muhtar p.170 v.4) It is also permissible to hand her over to her husband even though she has not matured yet. Consummating the marriage will only happen when she is physically able for it. This should answer your question that just because the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) married Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) at a young age it does not mean that the marriage was consummated at the age of nine.

Other answers given by scholars are that women depending on genetics, race and environment can mature from the age of eight onwards. Any objection to such a young marriage can only be made if can be shown that some harm was caused because of it. In fact all evidence points to the opposite as Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) was raised, nurtured and imbibed with knowledge of Islam. The Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) loved Saaidah Aaisha raḍyAllāhu 'anha (may Allāh be pleased with her) the most. There are narrations where Saaidah Aishah fondly recalls memories of racing with the Prophet of Allah ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam (peace and blessings of Allāh be upon him) and even winning the race when she was young and fit. They would sit and eat together and Aishah would take a sip and then the Prophet would do so from the same spot her lips touched. She would have some meat or chicken, and then he would eat from the same spot she ate from.

Only Allah Knows Best

Mohammed Tosir Miah

Darul Ifta Birmingham

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