What should be read loud and silently in prayer?

Fatwa ID: 02814

Answered by: Maulana Tahsin Alam​

Question:

Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah

It is my understanding that for Fardh prayers prayed alone one has to recite the prescribed things either loudly or silently.
And for all non fardh prayer (ie sunnah, nafl) one should pray silently.

1) Are my understandings correct?

2) What are the prescribed things? (Do they include things recited in Ruku, Sujood, while sitting after and between Sujood or just Quranic Verses?)

3) Define silently (Is moving of lips and tongue necessary or can one recite in the heart)

4) While praying behind Imam what should one read (please answer in full detail assume I know nothing ) and how (silently or in the heart) and when (what to recite in Rakats where Imam is reciting and other prayers)

5) When reciting Quran can one read in heart or has one necessarily read at least silently a)while alone b)while people are not listing (and intending to listen) to me.

بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيْم

Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullah

If a person is praying behind the Imam, they do not need to recite anything from the Quran. They should listen to the Imam’s recitation if he is reciting audible (i.e. in Fajr, Maghrib and Isha) and if not, they should just remain quiet.[1]

If they are praying by themselves, then for Zuhr and Asr they should recite Quran in a low voice and for Fajr, Maghrib and Isha they have a choice between reciting in a low voice or reciting in a loud voice. For these three prayers, it is better to recite in loud voice however, as one is only reciting for himself then he should not recite as loud as an Imam would.[2] When reciting in a low voice, one’s recitation should be audible to himself but not others around him. It is not sufficient to just recite in one’s mind or heart. One’s lips and mouth must move with the recitation.[3]

The aforementioned rulings apply to the recitation of the Quran in Salaat. As for the takbeeraat of salaat when moving from one posture to another and the tasbeehaat of ruku and sajadah as well as the tashhud all these will be said in a low voice.[4]

As for the recitation of the Quran outside Salaat, if you are alone you may recite loudly or silently. However, when you are around other people who are busy with things other than the Quran then you should not ready loudly. If you do and they do listen as they ought to, you will be sinful.[5]

 

Only Allah Ta'ala knows best

 

Written by Maulana Muddasser Dhedhy

Checked and approved by Ustadha Sabrina al-Faarsiyyah

Darul Ifta Birmingham

 

 

 

 

 


[1] (وَالْمُؤْتَمُّ لَا يَقْرَأُ مُطْلَقًا) وَلَا الْفَاتِحَةَ فِي السَّرِيَّةِ اتِّفَاقًا، وَمَا نُسِبَ لِمُحَمَّدٍ ضَعِيفٌ كَمَا بَسَطَهُ الْكَمَالُ (فَإِنْ قَرَأَ كُرِهَ تَحْرِيمًا) وَتَصِحُّ فِي الْأَصَحِّ. وَفِي دُرَرِ الْبِحَارِ عَنْ مَبْسُوطِ خُوَاهَرْ زَادَهْ أَنَّهَا تَفْسُدُ وَيَكُونُ فَاسِقًا، وَهُوَ مَرْوِيٌّ عَنْ عِدَّةٍ مِنْ الصَّحَابَةِ فَالْمَنْعُ أَحْوَطُ (بَلْ يَسْتَمِعُ) إذَا جَهَرَ (وَيُنْصِتُ) إذَا أَسَرَّ «لِقَوْلِ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ – رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ – كُنَّا نَقْرَأُ خَلْفَ الْإِمَامِ فَنَزَلَ – {وَإِذَا قُرِئَ الْقُرْآنُ فَاسْتَمِعُوا لَهُ وَأَنْصِتُوا} [الأعراف: 204]-» (رد المحتار ج 2 ص 266-267. دار الكتب العلمية)

[2] وَإِنْ كَانَ مُنْفَرِدًا إنْ كَانَتْ صَلَاةً يُخَافَتُ فِيهَا يُخَافِتُ حَتْمًا هُوَ الصَّحِيحُ وَإِنْ كَانَتْ صَلَاةً يُجْهَرُ فِيهَا فَهُوَ بِالْخِيَارِ وَالْجَهْرُ أَفْضَلُ وَلَكِنْ لَا يُبَالِغْ مِثْلَ الْإِمَامِ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَا يُسْمِعُ غَيْرَهُ. كَذَا فِي التَّبْيِينِ (الفتاوى الهندية ج 1 ص 79. دار الكتب العلمية)

[3] وَأَمَّا حَدُّ الْقِرَاءَةِ فَنَقُولُ تَصْحِيحُ الْحُرُوفِ أَمْرٌ لَا بُدَّ مِنْهُ فَإِنْ صَحَّحَ الْحُرُوفَ بِلِسَانِهِ وَلَمْ يُسْمِعْ نَفْسَهُ لَا يَجُوزُ وَبِهِ أَخَذَ عَامَّةُ الْمَشَايِخِ هَكَذَا فِي الْمُحِيطِ وَهُوَ الْمُخْتَارُ. هَكَذَا فِي السِّرَاجِيَّةِ وَهُوَ الصَّحِيحُ. هَكَذَا فِي النُّقَايَةِ (الفتاوى الهندية ج 1 ص 77. دار الكتب العلمية)

اب كى مسائل اور ان كا حل ج 3 ص 379. مكتبة لدهيانوى

(وَ) أَدْنَى (الْجَهْرِ إسْمَاعُ غَيْرِهِ وَ) أَدْنَى (الْمُخَافَتَةِ إسْمَاعُ نَفْسِهِ) وَمَنْ بِقُرْبِهِ؛ فَلَوْ سَمِعَ رَجُلٌ أَوْ رَجُلَانِ فَلَيْسَ بِجَهْرٍ، وَالْجَهْرُ أَنْ يَسْمَعَ الْكُلُّ خُلَاصَةٌ. (رد المحتار ج 2 ص 252-253. دار الكتب العلمية)

[4] وَالذِّكْرُ إنْ كَانَ وَجَبَ لِلصَّلَاةِ فَإِنَّهُ يُجْهَرُ بِهِ كَتَكْبِيرَةِ الِافْتِتَاحِ وَمَا لَيْسَ بِفَرْضٍ فَمَا وُضِعَ لِلْعَلَامَةِ فَإِنَّهُ يُجْهَرُ بِهِ كَتَكْبِيرَاتِ الِانْتِقَالِ عِنْدَ كُلِّ خَفْضٍ وَرَفْعٍ إذَا كَانَ إمَامًا وَأَمَّا الْمُنْفَرِدُ وَالْمُقْتَدِي فَلَا يَجْهَرَانِ بِهِ وَإِنْ كَانَ يَخْتَصُّ بِبَعْضِ الصَّلَاةِ كَتَكْبِيرَاتِ الْعِيدَيْنِ جُهِرَ بِهِ وَكَذَا الْقُنُوتُ فِي مَذْهَبِ الْعِرَاقِيِّينَ وَاخْتَارَ صَاحِبُ الْهِدَايَةِ الْإِخْفَاءَ وَأَمَّا مَا سِوَى ذَلِكَ فَلَا يُجْهَرُ بِهِ مِثْلُ التَّشَهُّدِ وَآمِينَ وَالتَّسْبِيحَاتِ. كَذَا فِي الْبَحْرِ الرَّائِقِ. (الفتاوى الهندية ج 1 ص 79-80. دار الكتب العلمية)

[5] فتاوى محمودية ج 3 ص 552. دار الإفتاء جامعة فاروقية كراتشي

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