I have some questions about making up fasts.
1) Is it correct that if one has broken multiple fasts in one Ramadhan, the person is only obliged to fast 60 consecutive days once?
2) Has the Qadha for every single broken fast to be made besides the Kaffarah? If so, does it matter when it is done?
3) On which days is it not permissible to even hold Qadha/Kaffarah fasts?
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.
Saaiduna Abu Huraira Radiallahu Anhu narrates that while we were sitting with the Prophet a man came and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! I have been ruined.” Allah’s Apostle asked what was the matter with him. He replied “I had sexual intercourse with my wife while I was fasting.” Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you afford to free a slave?” He replied in the negative. Allah’s Apostle asked him, “Can you fast for two successive months?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet asked him, “Can you afford to feed sixty poor persons?” He replied in the negative. The Prophet kept silent and while we were in that state, a big basket full of dates was brought to the Prophet. He asked, “Where is the questioner?” He replied, “I (am here).” The Prophet said (to him), “Take this (basket of dates) and give it in charity.” The man said, “Should I give it to a person poorer than I? By Allah; there is no family between its (i.e. Medina’s) two mountains who are poorer than I.” The Prophet smiled till his pre-molar teeth became visible and then said, ‘Feed your family with it.” (Sahih Bukhari p.259 v.1)
From the aforementioned hadith we can derive that if a person intentionally ate, drank or engaged in sexual intercourse during a fast in the month of Ramadhan, kaffarah will be obligatory. (Kitabul Fiqh p.906 v.1)
With regards to your first question, the ruling is that if the cause of breaking the fast is because of intentionally engaging in sexual intercourse then one is required to do a separate kaffarah for each breaking of the fast. However, if the cause is something else besides intentionally engaging in sexual intercourse then one kaffarah will be sufficient. (Ahsanul Fatawa p.444 v.4)
It is not necessary to keep the qadha fasts in order. One can keep it whenever he wishes. It is obligatory to keep a qadha fast for every single broken fast. (Ilmul Fiqh p.29 v.3)
Saaiduna Abu Hurairah Radiallahu Anhu narrates that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam forbade fasting on two days, the day of Fitr and the day of Adha. (Muwatta Malik p.241)
Saaiduna Nubaisha al-Hudhali Radiallahu Anhu reports that the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam saying, “The days of Tashriq are the days of eating and drinking.” (Sahih Muslim p.360 v.1)
It is not permissible to fast or to keep a qadha or kaffarah fast during these five days. They are the two days of Eid and the three days of Tashriq, which are the 11th, 12th and 13th of Zul Hijjah.
Only Allah Knows Best
Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham