SOME PEOPLE CALL OTHER PEOPLE I.E MUSLIMS WITH DEGRADING NAMES AND SOME EVEN TO THE EXTENT OF CALLING ANOTHER
MUSLIM BROTHER FIRAWN BCAUSE HE MIGHT BE AN UNFAIR PERSON IN SITUATIONS.
SO MY QUESTION IS CAN YOU PLEASE MENTION SAYINGS OF QURAN AND HADITH THAT TO CALL A MUSLIM BY AN INCORRECT NAME IS A SIN?
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.
For a Muslim to call another person with names such as Faasiq (Transgressor), Kafir (disbeliever), Saariq (thief) Munafiq (hypocrite) etc… is not permissible.
This is a form of swearing and the one who swears at a Muslim is a transgressor himself. (Ashraful –Hidayah P723 V.6/1)
The Prophet of Allah (SAW) has said: “To swear at a Muslim is fisq (immoral). (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Sunan Tirmizi, Sunan Nasaai)
Allah (SWA) In the Holy Quran has said: “Nor call one another with bad nicknames.” (Surah Hujjuraat V11)
Saaidina Ibn-Abbas (RA) says that “if a person committed a sin or performed an evil deed from which he repented from, it is unlawful for anyone to call him with degrading names like thief or adulterer etc…” (Maariful Quran p.134 v.8)
However there are some words which are offensive but do not defame or insult anyone but rather serve as a symbol of identification like Aaraj (lame, cripple). The Prophet Allah (SAW) himself named a companion dhul yadin because his hands were long. (Ibid)
The Prophet of Allah (SAW) reported to have said that it is the right of a Muslim to call his fellow Muslim by good names and titles which they like best. (Maariful Quran p135 v.8)
In regards to your question if someone calls a fellow Muslim Firawn for being unfair or oppressive then there are two possibilities:
1. He called him Firawn solely for being oppressive and unfair, then this will be permissible as backbiting (gheebah) is allowed against an oppressor.
2. He called him Firawn and in turn meant the person to be a disbeliever the same way Firawn was. This will not be permissible. (See: Ahsanul Fatwa P505 v.5)
Only Allah Knows Best
Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham.