Missing Jummah Salah due to work
In the name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.
Before answering your questions I will firstly relate a passage written by Hazrat Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanwi (RA) regarding the virtues of Jummah (Friday) and the Jummah salah.
The Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam has said: “Friday is the best of days. It was on this day that Saaiduna Adam Alayhis salam was created. It was on this day he was granted entry into paradise, it was on this day that he was removed from Paradise and the Day of Resurrection will also take place on this day.” (Sahih Muslim p.282 v.1)
The Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam has said; “Of all the days, Friday is the most virtuous. It is on this day that the trumpet will be blown. Send abundant durud on me on Fridays because they are presented to me on that day.” The companions asked; “O! Prophet of Allah! How will they be presented to you when even your bones will not be present after your death?” The Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam replied; “Allah has made the earth haram upon the Prophets forever.” (Sunan Abi Dawud p.157 v.1)
The Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam has said; “Friday is the mother of all days and the most virtuous in the sight of Allah (SWA). In the sight of Allah (SWA) it has more greatness than Eid ul Fitr and Eid ul Adhaa.” (Sunan Ibn Majah p.76 v.1)
The Shariah has specified a day in the week in which the people of all the different residential areas and villages can get together and fulfil the ibadah of salah. Since Jummah is the most virtuous and noble of days, this ibadah has been specified for this day.
With regards to you questions, if the manager is not letting a person read his Jummah salah, it will be necessary for him to find an alterative job. It is not permissible to take up such a career where one will regularly be missing his Friday prayer.
The time for Jummah salah is that of Zuhr salah and therefore it will be permissible to read before the Asr salah. However, it is more preferable and recommended to read the Jummah salah soon after zawaal. (Kitabul Fiqh p.599 v.1 & Fatawa Darul Uloom Deoband p.42 v.6)
Finally, if one of the 12 excuses which permits one to miss his salah with congregation is found he will be excused in performing his Jummah salah.
- When clothes for covering the essential parts of the body are not available.
- Mud on the road making it difficult to walk
- Heavy rain
- It is very cold and there is a fear of catching an illness
- Risk of property or wealth being stolen
- Fear of an confrontation with an enemy
- Fear of meeting a creditor and being embarrassed by him, as he is not in a position to repay the debt.
- Pitch dark
- It is night and a severe storm is raging.
- One is looking after a patient or a sick person
- When one intends to go for a journey and there is an apprehension that he may be delayed.
- If one is ill and cannot walk due to it or is blind or has lost his legs.
(Illmul Fiqh p.145 v.2 & Bashti Zewar p.170)
Only Allah Knows Best
Mohammed Tosir Miah
Darul Ifta Birmingham